Apple Central Leader orchard

The Central Leader in this manual has a set of scaffold limbs at the base with branches above it, called the spindle.

The spindle is a spiral of branches that become progressively weaker (softer) towards the top.

The guidelines for planting densities and tree training have been designed for growing apples on Central Leader in countries that have hot and dry summers with high sunlight intensity.

This manual has been written for:
  • those who plan to plant a new orchard

  • those who must take care of young apple trees and manage a high density orchard

  • nurserymen who grow the trees; and

  • those who in any way are concerned with the establishment, management and performance of high density apple trees.


apple central Leader cover 07 2020

  • 100 pages of info, photos and illustrations
  • File download: 5.5 Mb
  • Updated and expanded: July 2020
List of topics in this manual:

  • Row spacings & tree heights
  • Tree spacing and densities
  • Which rootstock - Dwarfing, semi-vigorous, vigorous?
  • What is apple replant disease (ARD) NEW
    • Overcoming ARD
  • Nursery trees - the ideal tree
  • Scion rooting of apples
  • Tree growth habit
  • Different pruning cuts
    • Heading cut - spring vs winter
    • Thinning cut
    • Delay heading
    • Bench cut
    • Clean cut
    • December cut
    • Ring cut
  • Don't make these mistakes when planting apple trees NEW
  • After planting
  • When buds move in spring
  • When you can not plant feathered trees
  • Manage trees in the first season
    • feathered trees
    • Rods/whips
  • Second year
    • tree growth and management
  • Third year
    • prepare for ongoing productivity
  • Fourth year - trees should have filled their alloted space
  • Renewal pruning
  • Summer pruning for skin colour
  • How to minimise sunburnt fruit
  • Hail net
    • positives and negatives
    • bee activity
    • type of net, structure, shape
    • colour
  • What causes biennial bearing
  • Root pruning
  • Crown Gall
  • What are burr knots
  • Calcium in the soil, tree and fruit
  • What is watercore?
  • Tree nutrition
  • A guide to replace the nutrient losses from harvested fruit
  • Nitrogen applications
  • How useful is a soil test
  • Soil organic matter
    • why is it important
    • supply of nutrients
  • Use winter weeds to improve your soil
  • Weed mulch + gypsum
  • Six steps to prepare soil before planting
  • Winter chill for breaking dormancy - chilling requirement
  • Balancing growth and cropping
  • $33.00
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